Reading Passage 1: Women Workhouses


            Passage 1
      1     The evils of the employment of pauper nurses
            is dwelt upon by all who have considered the
            subject of workhouse management. When we
            consider the persons to whom such extensive
      5     power and responsibility are entrusted, in
            the care of 50,000 sick persons in the London
            workhouses alone, we can hardly wonder at what
            is told of the results of the system. The only way
            in which an employment of the inmates could
      10    be successfully carried out, would be under the
            constant supervision of superior persons; but
            in the present system that is an impossibility.
            Efficient nurses, who could gain a living in any
            of our hospitals, would not be likely to offer
      15    themselves for a post in which it is nearly all work
            of the hardest kind, and no pay. One of these
            pauper nurses boldly stated that she had been
            sixteen times in the House of Correction, and
            she was not ashamed of it. Of course such labor 
      20    is cheap, and it is desirable, if possible, to employ
            those who must be maintained at the cost of the
            parish; but in no case should they be left with the
            sole charge and responsibility of sick wards, as
            they continually are at present, without any other
      25    control than the occasional visit of the matron,
            bestowed at the utmost once a day, in some cases
            only once a week.

            Seeing how careful boards of guardians are in
            all matters of expense, it would have been well if
      30    the recommendation of the poor law with regard
            to the employment of at least one paid nurse had
            been a law; as it is, many workhouses are without
            one. That such a person would always be all we
            could desire for so important a post we could
      35    hardly hope, from what we know of the paid
            nurses in hospitals, but at any rate there would be
            a better chance of efficiency and character than in
            the present plan.

            Passage 2
            But on the 18th of May, 1865, a Lady
      40    Superintendent who had received a thorough
            training at Kaiserswerth and St. Thomas's, twelve
            Nightingale nurses from St. Thomas's, eighteen
            probationers, and fifty-two of the old pauper
            nurses were placed in charge of the patients in the
      45    male wards of the Workhouse Infirmary.

            With the exception of the failure of the
            nurses taken from the pauper class, the first
            year’s trial was sufficiently successful to induce a
            continuance of the experiment. It was impossible,
      50    however, to judge the result by statistics. None
            that were available could be considered as an
            evidence of success or failure, for several reasons.
            The season was very unhealthy, and to relieve
            the pressure on the space and resources of the
      55    hospital, steps were taken to treat slight cases

            The endeavor to limit the admissions to
            serious cases would of course affect the returns,
            both as regards the time taken in curing, and the
      60    proportion of deaths. Even had there been no
            exceptional disturbing element, there is a defect
            in the statistics of workhouse hospitals which
            affects all inferences from them, in the absence
            of any careful classified list of cases kept by the
      65    medical officers, such as might fairly enable
            one to form a judgment from mere statistical
            tables. These, then, are not reliable as means of
            judgment, unless extending over a long period.
            The character of seasons, and nature of cases
      70    admitted, varies so much from year to year as
            to invalidate any deductions, unless founded on
            minutely kept medical records. The following
            extracts, however, from the reports of the
            Governor, and the surgical and medical officers of
      75    the Workhouse, bear decisive witness to the value
            of the “new system,” especially as contrasted with
            the “old system,” which in 1865-66 still prevailed
            in the female wards. All these reports bear
            emphatic testimony to the merits and devotion
      80    of the Lady Superintendent and her staff. The
            medical men, it is noteworthy, speak strongly of
            the better discipline and far greater obedience to
            their orders observable where the trained nurses
            are employed—a point the more important
      85    because it is that on which, before experience has
            reassured them, medical and other authorities
            have often been most doubtful.


The primary purpose of passage 1 is to
A) Praise an effective structure
B) Criticize a social group
C) Examine the finances of a system
D) Advocate for a necessary change

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 13-16 ("Efficient nurses…pay")
B) Lines 16-19 ("One of…it")
C) Lines 22-27 ("but in…week")
D) Lines 28-32 ("Seeing how…law")

As used in line 21, "maintained" most nearly means
A) provided for
B) affirmed
C) healed
D) fixed

The phrase in lines 34-35 ("we could hardly hope") most directly suggests that
A) an ideal candidate should be found for a position.
B) people who go to hospitals should be critical of nurses.
C) allowances should be made, since no person is perfect.
D) an improvement is still likely to have some flaws.

Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 13-16 ("Efficient nurses…pay")
B) Lines 19-22 ("Of course…parish")
C) Lines 29-32 ("it would…law")
D) Lines 35-38 ("from what…plan")

The final sentence of Passage 1 has which effect?
A) It emphasizes that the current situation is unpleasant.
B) It shares the author's despair over the circumstances.
C) It casts an entirely optimistic light on a proposal.
D) It evokes the generally low opinion held for a certain group.

It can be most directly inferred from the second paragraph of Passage 2 (lines 46-56) that the first year of the experiment described in the passage was unusual in
A) having weather that caused an uncharacteristic amount of illness.
B) the overall number of people who required medical treatment.
C) that effective medical treatment exceeded statistical expectations.
D) the number of people who died from disease.

The passage implies that before the 1870s, hospitals
A) specify what will be required of all workhouses in the future, if the experiment continues.
B) explain a missing element that would have ensured an outcome.
C) reveal an inconsistency which made more accurate analysis impossible.
D) detail the extent to which records can be kept over a long period.

As used in line 69, the phrase "character of seasons" most nearly means
A) changes in morality.
B) weather patterns.
C) the overall health during a period.
D) the unpredictable nature of human behavior.

The author of Passage 1 would most likely respond to the phrase in lines 46-47 ("With the exception…class") of Passage 2 by
A) expressing surprise at an unexpected result that is inconsistent with prior observations.
B) acknowledging that an ideal situation may not be practical to attain.
C) noting that intervention earlier in life may have changed an outcome.
D) suggesting that the data may not be entirely representative.

Which choice best describes the relationship between the two passages?
A) Passage 2 describes a scenario that addresses some elements of the situation shown in Passage 1.
B) Passage 2 discusses potential results of the overall problem reviewed in Passage 1.
C) Passage 2 underscores the futility of attempts to resolve the concerns of Passage 1.
D) Passage 2 resolves the issues brought to light in Passage 1.